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Chronology for Ewe in Togo

Publisher Minorities at Risk Project
Publication Date 2004
Cite as Minorities at Risk Project, Chronology for Ewe in Togo, 2004, available at: [accessed 23 May 2023]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.
Date(s) Item
1884 - 1914 The German established a protectorate in Western Africa (now Togo) in 1884. In order to govern the territories, the Germans relied on local authorities (mostly ethnic Ewes). The Germans began a study of Ewe law, hoping to issue a new legal code, but were thwarted by World War I. During the German period, the country's basic infrastructure was established. Railroads were built in order to carry German goods to the northern Territories of the Gold Coast for trade.
1918 After World War I, Togo was divided between the British and the French under a League of Nations Mandate. British Togoland was administered in a similar way to the rest of the Gold Coast. The French sector of Togoland, like the rest of French West Africa, was highly centralized and ruled directly from Dakar (now the capital of Senegal). Yet, Togo had its own High Commissioner and financial autonomy. The division of German Togoland resulted in the rise of ethnic nationalism among ethnic Ewes. Since all Ewes had been under British rule during the war, the drawing of the border through Ewe territories aroused discontent.
1931 - 1940 The British and French attempted to enforce border regulations, which in turn led Ewes to riots. Still, the colonial powers resisted unification. Most political parties during the colonial rule were government-supported, except the Comite d'Unite Togolaise (CUT) which was independent and anti-French.
1950 The French were committed to increasing self-government, but hoped to retain the territory within the French sphere.
1958 Elections leading to independence were held and the CUT, led by Sylvanus Olympio (an Ewe), won. Between 1957 and 1963, the Greater Togo Movement of Ewe separatists sought to separate Trans-Volta (now Volta Region) from Ghana and annex it to Togo.
Apr 27, 1960 Togo became independent. The country retained close links with France and established economic links with other former French colonies. British Togoland voted to join Ghana and the problem of Ewe irredentism remained. Despite the plebiscite in British Togoland, Olympio demanded the unification of British and French Togoland.
1961 - 1962 Following several attempted coups, the opposition Juvento Party was dissolved.
Jan 1963 Olympio refused to incorporate demobilized Togolese soldiers (mostly Kabrai) of the French army into the Togolese armed forces. Subsequently, on January 13, Olympio was assassinated in a coup led by leaders of the demobilized veterans with the support of their Kabrai army allies. The coup leaders turned power over to Nicholas Grunitsky, Olympio's electoral opponent. It was the first coup to occur in West Africa.
1963 - 1967 Under Grunitsky rule, about 80 percent of the Togolese armed forces had been recruited from the North. Grunitsky attempted to gain the favor of the Ewes with little success. He also failed to establish a northern-based regime and his demotion of a popular northern rival weakened his support in the army. Unemployment and widespread corruption provoked the military to seize power. In 1966, there was an attempted coup led by Lieutenant Colonel Eyadema (who had also been involved in the overthrow of Olympio).
Jan 1967 Eyadema seized power as Army Chief of Staff in a bloodless coup, assuming the title of President three months later.
1969 Eyadema promised to hand over power to civilian rule, but created his own party, Rally of the Togolese People (RAPT-Rassemblement du peuple togolais). Existing political parties were banned and a single-party system was established.
1972 Eyadema became head of state by a huge majority in a referendum.
Dec 1979 The 1980 constitution, with an executive presidency, was approved by referendum.
1980 Eyadema placed himself in command of the capital's garrison. Eyadema's cousin became director of the police academy and his half-brother was appointed as the presidential guard.
Dec 1986 Presidential elections were held. Eyadema, as the sole candidate, was re-elected for a second seven-year term.
1987 Yema Gu-Konu and Ati Randolph were arrested and held in detention for two years for possessing or distributing literature critical of the government.
1990 Protesters denounced the authoritarian, one-party government of President Eyadema and demanded political reforms and multi-party democracy. From early 1990 human rights violations increased as opposition to Eyadema grew.
Mar 1990 Legislative elections to the National Assembly were held.
May 1990 The ruling RAPT rejected a return to a multi-party system of government.
Oct 1990 After mass protest and rioting in Lome, the worst disturbances in 23 years of one-party rule, Eyadema approved a proposal for the drafting of a new constitution which was expected to provide for political pluralism.
Dec 13, 1990 The Alliance of Togolese Democrats (ADT-Alliance des democrats togolais, led by Dani Ife), the first opposition party since 1967, was founded, but not officially registered. In addition, the Togolese Movement for Democracy (MTD-Mouvement togolais pour la democratie, led by Paulin Lossou) and the Democratic Convention of African Peoples (CDPA-Convention democratique des peuples africains), both umbrella opposition organizations, were operating in exile.
Jan 1991 An amnesty for political exiles was declared.
Mar 1 - Apr 30, 1991 Strikes and violent protests by students and citizens demanding political reform shook the capital city Lome. Previously illegal opposition groups coalesced behind Yaovi Agboyibo, a key opposition figure. Teargas was used and several demonstrators were shot dead.
Apr 10, 1991 Following further serious riots, Eyadema agreed to legalize political parties.
May 1991 Public disorder continued with demands for the resignation of Eyadema. Eyadema stood down from the post of Defence Minister which he had held since 1967.
Jun 12, 1991 At a meeting with the Democratic Opposition Front (DOF), a group representing the illegal opposition, Eyadema agreed to terms for holding a national conference.
Jul 8, 1991 The national conference finally opened in Lome, declared itself sovereign and revoked the 1980 Constitution. Despite Eyadema's attempt to suspend it, the conference continued until August 28.
Aug 1991 The conference stripped Eyadema of all but his ceremonial powers and chose Joseph Kokou Koffigoh as the new prime minister.
Oct 1991 Troops loyal to Eyadema (about 70 percent of Eyadema's army were drawn from his own Kabye tribe) stormed the national radio and television station in Lome in an effort to return him to power. About 20 pro-democracy activists were killed.
Nov 26, 1991 The High Council of the Republic (HCR-the transitional government, led by Koffigoh) announced the dissolution of Eyadema's RAPT.
Nov 28, 1991 Troops surrounded the government's headquarters and occupied the state radio stations in a further attempt to oust Koffigoh. The soldiers demanded that the HCR be dissolved, all decisions of the conference be declared null, and an all-party government be formed with a new prime minister appointed by the president. Koffigoh requested France to dispatch troops to Togo.
Nov 29, 1991 France dispatched 300 French troops to neighboring Benin in order to protect the 3,000 French nationals in Togo.
Dec 3, 1991 Koffigoh was seized by rebel soldiers after an attack on his residence in which at least 17 people, including Eyadema's brother, the commander of the presidential guard, were killed. France refused to intervene. Koffigoh was freed the next day after a meeting with Eyadema.
Dec 24, 1991 An agreement on the composition of the new government was reached after a conference attended by Eyadema, Koffigoh, senior officers of the army, and the chairman of the HCR.
Dec 29, 1991 A new cabinet was approved by the HCR.
Feb 9, 1992 Over 50,000 people gathered in Lome for a pro-democracy rally organized by 12 opposition groups. Leopold Gnininvi, Secretary General of the CDPA, called for a single opposition candidate in the presidential elections scheduled for June. He called on the people to thwart anti-democratic forces. Other opposition leaders called for foreign observers to monitor the elections.
May 5, 1992 During 1992, the political struggle between former President Eyadema and the transitional government of Prime Minister Koffigoh resulted in violence on several occasions. There was an armed attack on opposition figures in the northern region of Assoli. It was regarded as an assassination attempt on Gilchrist Olympio, son of the country's first president and chairman of the opposition alliance Union of the Forces of Change (UFC). Olympio was seriously injured and at least 10 people were killed including two other opposition leaders.
Jul 29, 1992 Tavio Amorin, the opposition leader of the Pan-Africanist Socialist Party and a member of the HCR, died of gunshot wounds in an armed attack. His death ignited demonstrations in Lome on July 30 by youths accusing Eyadema of the killing.
Aug 27, 1992 The HCR conceded to pressure from Eyadema and extended the period of transition to multiparty democracy (which was to have been completed by August 28) until December 31. In addition, the HCR restored to Eyadema many of the powers stripped from him in 1991.
Sep 27, 1992 A multi-party constitution was given popular approval by referendum.
Nov 1992 A political struggle between Eyadema and Koffigoh threatened to develop into a full-blown constitutional crisis. Thousands of people in Lome demonstrated in favor of Koffigoh on November 11.
Nov 22, 1992 Over 150,000 people in Lome held a mass rally in support of the general strike, which was called by the Collective of Democratic Opposition-2 (COD-2) on November 16. They called for the removal of Eyadema.
Dec 29, 1992 Koffigoh called for an end to the general strike.
Jan 3, 1993 The COD-2 boycotted talks with Koffigoh, branding him an "obstacle to democracy" and demanding his removal.
Jan 25, 1993 The political crisis escalated further when at least 22 people died after police fired on a demonstration in the capital. The opposition claimed 50 were killed.
Jan 30, 1993 In revenge for the death of one of their members on January 29, soldiers rampaged through the streets and killed at least six civilians. At least 300,000 people, half the population of Lome, then fleeing into Ghana and Benin. France and Germany sought to find a peaceful solution to the continuing conflict. During 1993, 50,000 oppositionists went into exile out of abject fear of the security forces.
Feb 4, 1993 Germany decided to suspend the funding of development projects for Togo.
Feb 8 - 9, 1993 There were unsuccessful talks (initiated by France and Germany) between representatives of Eyadema (RAPT), Koffigoh (HCR), and the COD-2 in Colmar, France.
Feb 11, 1993 Following the failure of the Colmar talks, France suspended its civilian aid operations. A French Foreign Ministry official said that the suspension would continue until free, democratic elections had been held. Eyadema and Koffigoh held bilateral talks and agreed to the formation of a new government. Koffigoh was criticized for abandoning his radical stance and cooperating with Eyadema.
Feb 12, 1993 A "crisis government" was named in which Eyadema's men continued to hold the key posts.
Mar 1993 Eydaema claimed gun and rocket fire at an army camp was an attempt on his life by Togolese opposition militants backed by the Ghanaian forces. The opposition and Ghana accused Eyadema of inventing a coup attempt to camouflage a purge by soldiers of Eyadema's Kabye tribe of Ewe troops sympathetic to the opposition.
Jun 1, 1993 The government rescheduled the first round of presidential elections from June 20 to July 4, and then to July 18. The COD-2 dismissed the government's latest election schedule as legally impossible.
Jun 11, 1993 Koffigoh formed a new opposition coalition Coordination of New Forces (CFN-Coordination des Forces Nouvelles). It was composed of six parties.
Jul 11, 1993 The presidential elections were postponed from July 18 until August 25, following an agreement between the government and opposition parties.
Aug 25, 1993 Eyadema won the country's first multi-party presidential elections by default as the result of an opposition boycott. Alleging serious electoral fraud, the COD-2 declared it would not participate in legislative elections unless its demands were met. Among foreign observers, only the French gave the elections any credence. While officially proclaiming support for democratization and human rights in francophone Africa, France continued to support Eyadema's regime.
Nov 1993 Togolese Alliance for Democracy (led by Ife Adani) and the Union of Independent Liberal (ULI, led by Jacques Amouzou) were established with the aim of bridging the gap between the Eyadema's government and the COD-2
Jan 5, 1994 At least 67 people died in shooting and explosions after over 100 Togolese dissidents trained in Ghana (allegedly monitored by English and Ewe-speaking security forces) crossed the border and attacked the RIT (Togo Interarm Regiment) base where Eyadema has a residence. The RIT camp is near Francophone Togo's border with Ghana. Ewe is spoken on both sides of the frontier. Exiled Togolese opposition leader Gilchrist Olympio (based in Ghana) denied his supporters were responsible for the attack. The Togo government said that a March 1993 attack and the January 5 attack on the same site were coup attempts by Togolese opposition militants trained in Ghana. Eyadema ordered curfews and closed borders (with Ghana, Benin, and Burkina Faso). Relations between Togo and Ghana deteriorated further.
Feb 7, 1994 Finally, the country's first multi-party parliamentary elections was held. The result of the elections divided along largely ethnic lines -- northern supporters of Eyadema (Kabye) vs. southern-based opposition (Ewe). Togo's former ruling party, RAPT, won 33 of the 81 parliamentary seats and 15 of the 16 constituencies in Kara, Eyadema's northern stronghold. The RAPT's allied party Union for Justice and Development won another two. In the south (including the capital and central Togo), the Ewe opposition parties fared well. The two main opposition parties, Action Committee for Renewal (CAR, led by Yaovi Agboyibo) and the Togolese Union for Democracy (UTD, led by Edem Kodjo) notched up 19 and 3 seats, respectively. Kodjo won in his Lome constituency and Agboyibo won in his home town of Kouve. Koffigoh's CFN won no seat. About 3,500 refugees fled into northern Togo from neighboring Ghana after ethnic clashes between the Ghanaian Kokomba and Manoba tribes.
Oct 1994 Lt. Col. Narcisse Djoua, commander of the notoriously brutal Garde Presidentielle, was arrested along with one of his sergeants for the murder in June 1994 of Laurent Agbemavor, a Togolese notary. The president's critics pointed to reports that Djoua was in any case planning a coup attempt and suggested Eyadema was, so to speak, killing two birds with one stone.(Source: Africa Review World of Information, September 1995)
Dec 10, 1994 Togo reopened its border with Ghana, closed since the January fighting.
Dec 23, 1994 After the Togolese parliament approved a general amnesty for anybody involved in the 1993 and 1994 attacks, Togo has freed five soldiers and three civilians who were alleged insurgents.
Apr 4, 1995 Togo's parliament reconvened for its first session of the year, with the largest opposition party continuing a boycott over by-elections. Only 41 of the elected 78 deputies attended the colorful session witnessed by foreign diplomats. A date has yet to be fixed for a rerun of elections in three constituencies where irregularities were confirmed after Togo's first pluralist elections on February 6 and 20, 1994.
May 26, 1995 Four cars were destroyed by a violent explosion at the Administrative Center of Economic and Financial Services.(Source: BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 5/26/95)
Jul 26, 1995 Togo appointed an ambassador to Ghana for the first time since 1982.(Source: Africa Review World of Information, February 1997)
Aug 1995 An agreement was made between the government and UNHCR for the repatriation of an estimated 45,000 Togolese refugees living in Benin and 75,000 to 80,000 living in Ghana neared completion by year's end.(Source: U.S. Department of State, February 1997)
Aug 24, 1995 Togo's parliament held an extraordinary session today, marked by the return of the Action Committee for Renewal CAR to the National Assembly. Yao Agboyibo's CAR had boycotted the new National Assembly to protest against the conditions under which elections were held. The CAR's return was made possible by a political agreement reached between Mr Agboyibo's party and the government.(Source: BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 8/24/95)
Dec 21, 1995 A court in Togo has sentenced both the former head of the presidential guard and a former army major to 35 years in jail over the killing of a Togolese lawyer.(Source: Reuters World Service, 12/21/95)
Jan 17, 1996 Moudassirou Katakpaou Toure, director of the opposition newspaper, The Letter of Tchaoudjo, was sentenced on January 17, without being present at the trial or sentencing, to 5 years in prison and a $ 10,000 fine for "defamation of the Chief of State." The Letter of Tchaoudjo was suspended indefinitely. (Source: U.S. Department of State, February 1997)
Mar 31, 1996 Togo's President Gnassingbe Eyadema has formally apologized to Germany for the death of a German diplomat, shot by security forces in Lome last week.(Source: Reuters World Service, 3/31/96)
Jun 19, 1996 The opposition newspaper, The Tribune of Democrats, was fined $6,000, suspended for 6 months, and its director of publication, Eric Lawson, was sentenced without being present at the trial or sentencing to 5 years in prison for "inciting hate and spreading false news" regarding a series of articles blaming a murder on an unidentified commando squad of persons in uniform. (Source: U.S. Department of State, February 1997)
Jul 20, 1996 Togo's main opposition party, the Action Committee for Renewal ( CAR), will boycott next month's by-election in three constituencies where results of the 1994 parliamentary election were scrapped by the supreme court.(Source: Reuters World Service, 7/20/96)
Aug 1996 The status of Togo's political parties was altered following long delayed by-elections for three parliamentary seats. President Eyadema's Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais (RPT) won all three, and thus gained a narrow majority in the National Assembly; 40 seats compared with 33 for the main opposition party -the Comite d'Action pour le Renouveau (CAR)-and five for Edem Kodjo's Union Togolaise pour la Democratie (UTD). On 19 August 1996,(Source: Africa Review World of Information, March 1998)
Aug 8, 1996 Protests are under way following the Supreme Court confirmation of by-election wins for President Gnassingbe Eyadema's party in two constituencies, assuring it of a parliamentary majority. A third seat contested in the August 4 election will go to a second round run-off on August 18 between Eyadema's Togolese People's Rally (RPT) and the small Alliance of Democrats for the Republic (ADR).(Source: Reuters World Service, 8/9/96)
Aug 19, 1996 Togo's prime minister, Edem Kodjo, resigned, saying that three by-elections won by President Gnassingbe Eyadema's party had changed the balance of power. Kodjo, an opposition politician who accepted the post after elections in 1994 but has been at odds with Eyadema of late, announced the move in a statement from his office. He will be replaced by Kwasi Klutse, former Minister of Planning.(Source: Reuters World Service, 8/19/96)
Aug 28, 1996 Togo's new prime minister Kwassi Klutse has named a 24-member cabinet drawn mainly from President Gnassingbe Eyadema's party and keeping key figures from the previous administration. Togo's main opposition party and the party of former prime minister Edem Kodjo had declined to join the broad-based government. (Source: Reuters World Service, 8/28/96)
Jan 13, 1997 President Eyadema triumphantly celebrated 30 years in power on 13 January 1997.(Source: Africa Review World of Information, March 1998)
Feb 8, 1997 Despite an opposition boycott, the National Assembly chose its representatives for the new court, with the President and Prime Minister choosing their representatives (Source: Africa Review World of Information, March 1998)
Mar 1997 France reestablished political relations with President Eyadema. The good relationship with Paris was illustrated by joint military exercises.(Source: Africa Review World of Information, March 1998)
Mar 1997 President Eyadema informed the Organization of African Unity (OAU) that he would gladly mediate the border dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon.(Source: Africa Review World of Information, March 1998)
Mar 23, 1997 In Togo, the main parliamentary opposition party, the Action Committee for Renewal [CAR] of Yaovi Agboyibor announced the organization of a protest march in Lome on 26th April. The march is aimed at denouncing the maneuvers of the former sole party - the Togolese People's Rally [RPT] - which opposition groups have accused of trying to prevent the opposition parties from carrying on their activities. (Source: BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3/23/97)
May 3, 1997 The opposition organized more demonstrations in Lome on 3 May 1997.(Source: Africa Review World of Information, March 1998)
Dec 31, 1997 Togo was admitted as 55th member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) following the organization's annual coordination meeting in New York.(Source: Africa News, 12/31/97)
Mar 28, 1998 The leading opposition party tabled a no-confidence vote against the government for its inability to manage the energy and water crises confronting the country. (Source: BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 3/28/98)
May 6, 1998 When Togolese voters go to the polls next month to elect a new president, they will have a choice between the incumbent President Gnassingbe Eyadema and a myriad of opposition candidates. But this split in the opposition, political observers say, will easily lead to a situation that will return Eyadema, who has been in office since 1967, to power. Three opposition leaders -- Gilchrist Olympio of the Union of Forces for Change (UFC), Leopold Messan Gnininvi of the African People's Democratic Convention ( CDPA) , as well as Yaovi Agboyibor of the Action Committee for Renewal (ACR) -- have already declared their intentions to fight Eyadema's ruling Rassemblemment du Peuple Togolais (RPT). Opposition leader, Edem Kodjo, however, is urging Togo's opposition to field a single candidate to challenge Eyadema.(Source: Inter Press Service, 5/6/98)
May 24, 1998 Around 3,000 demonstrators from opposition parties called on Saturday in Lome for an international investigation into an Amnesty International (AI) report that hundreds of political opponents were killed during political unrest in 1998 in Togo Protesters also called for the release of three human rights activists: Nestor Tengue, Francois Gayibor and Antoine Koffi Nadjombe, detained for allegedly collaborating with AI. President Eyadema claims the AI reports are unfounded, and he has announced his government's intentions of suing Amnesty International. (Source: Africa News, 5/24/99)
Jun 21, 1998 Presidential elections were held. The opposition boycotted them. At one point ballot counting was suspended and members of the state commission that organized and supervised the polls resigned, saying they were been subjected to harassment. Despite this, the country's Home Affairs Minister announced the results (Eyadema won with over 95% of the vote), which were approved by the Constitutional Court. (Source: Inter Press Service, 12/28/98)
Jun 24, 1998 Members of the UFC led by Gilchrist Olympio staged demonstrations Wednesday in the streets of Lome, in protest of the results of last Sunday's presidential election.(Source: Africa News, 6/24/98)
Jun 28, 1998 The Party for Democracy and Renewal [PDR] and the Action Committee for Renewal [CAR] petitioned the Constitutional Court over the 21st June election. Their argument is based on the premise that the collation of results was the prerogative of the National Electoral Commission, the responsibility of which it is to transmit them to the Constitutional Court. Moreover, according to the PDR-CAR communique, the interior and security minister's actions are manifestly devoid of all legal basis and seriously affect the regularity of the electoral exercise.(Source: BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 6/29/98)
Jul 4, 1998 The Togolese Constitutional Court has rejected the motion filed by three opposition parties to cancel results of the 21 June presidential election which gave victory to incumbent President Gnassingbe Eyadema. One of the grounds for the motion was that the result was announced by the interior ministry instead of the National Electoral Commission (CEN), which is charged to do so. But in its ruling published Friday in Lome, the court said since there was no organ which could legally replace the CEN when its chair and other members resigned, only the interior ministry could collate the results and transmit them to the Constitutional Court, "so as to avoid blocking the electoral process".(Source: Africa News, 7/4/98)
Aug 16, 1998 Tension is high following an armed attack blamed on anti-government exiles, and over government reprisals against the internal opposition which has been calling for the results of a June 21 presidential poll to be scrapped. Authorities said that a group of men who fired automatic weapons and shells at the Togolese capital were supporters of Gilchrist Olympio, a Togolese opposition leader who lives in neighboring Ghana. (Source: Inter Press Service, 8/26/98)
Oct 25, 1998 The Executive Committee of Yaovi Agboyibor's Action Committee for Renewal (CAR) presented a letter of protest to the interior minister denouncing the atmosphere of terror and insecurity reigning in the birthplace of the CAR president. This protest letter also denounces the inaction of the Togolese government towards this situation. CAR leaders claim that several sources have alerted them that activists of the ruling Togolese People's Rally RPT are getting ready to murder opposition activists in Yotor Prefecture, the birth region of CAR Chairman Yaovi Agboyibor.(Source: BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 10/25/98)
Feb 20, 1999 The prime minister received representatives of political parties for consultations. Legislative elections were scheduled to begin February 21, and presidential elections were scheduled to take place on 6th march. Opposition submitted no candidates. (Source: BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 2/20/99)
Mar 4, 1999 No opposition political party will take part in the legislative elections, previously scheduled for 21st February but postponed until 21st March. Officials of the opposition have asked the government of Prime Minister Kwassi Klutse to redefine the rules of electoral operations. (Source: BC Summary of World Broadcasts, 4/4/99)
Mar 21, 1999 Togo's fragile democratic reforms have taken a major hit following a sweep of the country's disputed legislative elections, which were boycotted by the entire opposition. The results of the poll, which saw the ruling Togolese People's Rally RPT sweep 79 of the 81 seats in the national assembly, have prompted a heated political temperature throughout the country. The Opposition is charging that the country has returned to a de facto single party rule, but the government vehemently denies this. The main opposition group, CAR, which holds 33 sets in the National Assembly, called on voters to stay away from the polls. The dispute centers on the opposition Union of Forces for Change (UFC) claims that its candidate, Gilchrist Olympio, was the actual winner of last year's presidential vote, which saw President Gnassingbe Eyadema return to power in a position he has occupied since 1967. (Source: BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 3/5/99)
May 10, 1999 Amnesty International reported that the security forces in Togo, following last June's presidential elections executed hundreds of persons. The Togolese government has claimed these accusations are false and that the investigation and charges that Amnesty International has brought against the government have being orchestrated by opposition groups in the country. The government has arrested two supposed AI collaborators, and is suing the international organization.(Source: BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 5/10/99)
Jun 11, 1999 An inter-Togolese dialogue began in Paris today. Representatives of the government and of the opposition met this morning around Bernard Stazi, the mediator from the French Republic. The final objective of the dialogue is to agree on ways of ensuring true dialogue in Togo - a dialogue demanded by the EU, which suspended its cooperation with Lome in 1993. The Togolese opposition notably rejects the re-election of President Gnassingbe Eyadema, which was proclaimed a year ago. The precise subject for the meeting which is taking place in Paris today is how to reach an agreement on the security guaranties needed by participants in the next discussions planned for Lome.(Source: BBC Summary World of Broadcasts, 6/11/99)

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