• 10-Point Plan of Action

    An action plan which seeks to assist States in ensuring that refugee protection needs are recognized and appropriately addressed in situations of mixed migration. The Plan sets out ten areas in which UNHCR has an interest and a potential role to play in partnership with other key actors. The Plan is especially relevant to situations where refugees are at risk of refoulement or hazardous onward movements. 

  • 2015 current budget

    2015 current budget as adjusted by the High Commissioner as of November 2015; pending presentation to ExCom's Standing Committee.

  • 2015 original budget

    2015 budget as approved by the Executive Committee at its sixty-fourth session in October 2013.

  • 2015 revised budget

    2015 budget as approved by the Executive Committee at its sixty-fifth session in October 2014.

  • 2016 current budget

    2016 current budget as adjusted by the High Commissioner as of January 2016; pending presentation to ExCom's Standing Committee.

  • 2016 original budget

    2016 budget as approved by the Executive Committee at its sixty-sixth session in October 2015.

  • Agenda for Protection

    A declaration and programme of action, agreed by UNHCR and States as part of the Global Consultations on International Protection, including six goals to improve the protection of refugees and asylum-seekers around the world. The Agenda was endorsed in October 2002 by the Executive Committee and welcomed by the UN General Assembly. 

  • Amicus curiae

    Latin for “friend of the court.” A person or group who is/are not a party to a particular litigation but permitted by the court to advise it on some matter of law that directly affects the case in question. 

  • Asylum

    The granting by a State of protection on its territory to individuals from another State who are fleeing persecution or serious danger. Asylum encompasses a variety of elements, including non-refoulement, permission to remain on the territory of the asylum country and humane standards of treatment. 

  • Asylum-seeker

    An individual who is seeking international protection. In countries with individualized procedures, an asylum-seeker is someone whose claim has not yet been finally decided on by the country in which the claim is submitted. Not every asylum-seeker will ultimately be recognized as a refugee, but every refugee was initially an asylum-seeker.

  • AU Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention)

    This African Union Convention was adopted in 2009 and entered into force on 6 December 2012. It is the first legally binding instrument on internal displacement on a continent-wide scope. It provides a comprehensive regional framework setting out provisions for the protection and assistance of IDPs. The Convention also looks at the root causes of displacement and at ways to prevent it.

  • Baseline (RBM term)

    A baseline is the situation at the time of assessment, used as the starting point for measuring progress and results.

  • Best Interests Assessment (BIA)

    Assessment made by staff regarding the individual protection needs of displaced children to ensure that care programmes give primary consideration to the child’s best interests. 

  • Best Interests Determination (BID)

    Formal process with strict procedural safeguards designed to determine the child's best interests for particularly important decisions affecting the child.

  • Cartagena Declaration on Refugees

    A Declaration adopted by a colloquium of experts from the Americas in November 1984. The Declaration enlarges the 1951 Convention definition of refugee to include “persons who have fled their country because their lives, safety or freedom have been threatened by generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violation of human rights or other circumstances which have seriously disturbed public order.”  While the Declaration is not a treaty, its provisions are respected across Central America. This refugee definition has been incorporated in the legislation of most of the countries of the Americas.

  • Cessation clauses

    Legal provisions that set out the conditions under which refugee status comes to an end because it is no longer needed or justified. Cessation clauses are found in Article 1 (C) of the 1951 Convention and in Article I (4) of the 1969 OAU Refugee Convention. 

  • Cluster leadership approach

    Part of the overall UN-led humanitarian reform process initiated in 2005 aimed at improving the effectiveness of humanitarian response through improving the predictability and accountability of humanitarian actions. It was adopted by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee as a mechanism that would address identified gaps in response and enhance the quality of humanitarian actions by strengthening partnerships between UN agencies, the Red Cross movement, international organizations and NGOs. UNHCR is the designated cluster lead for emergency shelter, camp coordination and camp management, and protection in situations of conflict-related internal displacement.

  • Community-based approach

    An inclusive partnership strategy that recognizes and builds on the capacities and resources of people of concern, by promoting participation in programme activities. 

  • Complementary pathways for admission to protection and solutions for refugees

    Safe and regulated avenues by which refugees may be admitted and stay in a country, and have their international protection needs met while they are also able to support themselves to potentially reach a sustainable and lasting solution. Complementary pathways are not meant to substitute the protection afforded to refugees under the international protection regime – they complement it and serve as an important expression of global solidarity, international cooperation and more equitable responsibility sharing. These pathways may include family reunification, scholarship and education programmes, as well as labour regional mobility schemes.

  • Comprehensive solutions strategies

    Strategies whereby UNHCR engages with concerned parties (including authorities in countries of asylum, origin and affected refugees themselves) with the aim of enhancing solutions opportunities by applying a combination of durable solutions. These strategies have included support for voluntary repatriation; the strategic use of resttlement; increased opportunities for local integration; support to refugee-hosting communities by UNHCR, development partners and bilateral donors; as well as maximized opportunities for greater mobility as a pathway to solutions.

  • Comprehensive target (RBM term)

    The comprehensive target indicates the level of achievement that UNHCR plans to reach within the period of implementation if the funding requirements (comprehensive needs) set out in the operations plan are fulfilled (see also implementation target).

  • Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1961 Convention)

    A treaty that provides for the acquisition of nationality by those who would otherwise be stateless and who have an appropriate link with the State, through birth on the territory or through descent from a national. The Convention also provides for the retention of nationality by those who would become stateless if they were to lose their nationality to that State. UNHCR has been mandated with specific functions under Article 11 of this Convention. 

  • Convention refugees

    Persons recognized as refugees by States, under the eligibility criteria in Article 1 of the 1951 Convention, and who are entitled to the enjoyment of a variety of rights under that treaty.

  • Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951 Convention)

    This treaty establishes the most widely applicable framework for the protection of refugees. The Convention was adopted in July 1951 and entered into force in April 1954. Article 1 of the Convention limits its scope to “events occurring before 1 January 1951” but this restriction was removed by the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. 

  • Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons (1954 Convention)

    A Convention that provides the definition of a stateless person and establishes a framework by which a stateless person, who is lawfully resident in a State, can have legal status. The Convention was adopted in September 1954 and entered into force in June 1960.

  • Delivering as One (also known as One UN)

    A mechanism designed to improve the UN's ability to implement development, humanitarian assistance and environmental activities. The framework is based on a unified and coherent UN structure at the country level with one leader, one programme, one budget and, where appropriate, one office. Achievements are measured by results-based management and accountability standards. 

  • Dublin II Regulation

    A European Council Regulation, effective from 1 September 2003, which provides the legal basis for establishing the criteria and mechanism for determining the State responsible for examining an asylum application in one of the Member States of the European Union (excluding Denmark), as well as in Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. 

  • Durable solutions

    A durable solution is achieved when a durable legal status is obtained which ensures national protection for civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. Durable solutions can be achieved through voluntary repatriation, local integration, resettlement or complementary pathways. 

  • Earmarking

    A donor restriction that limits or directs the purpose for which a contribution may be used.

    Unrestricted contributions (also referred to as unearmarked funding)
    No limitations on the use of funds

    Broadly earmarked contribution
    Earmarked contributions towards a region (e.g. Africa) or subregion (e.g. West Africa) and towards Headquarters, global programmes. Also includes contributions for a specific Pillar (e.g. Pillar 1 – Refugees) at the global, regional or subregional level ; contributions for supplementary programmes that cover more than one country, i.e. at subregional or regional level for a specific situation (e.g. Somalia situation) and
    contributions that are earmarked for a specific theme or activity at the subregional level or higher. 

    Earmarked contribution
    Contributions that are earmarked for a specific country, location or population without any further limitations. Also includes Contributions for supplementary programmes that cover only one country.

    Tightly earmarked contribution
    Contributions that are earmarked at the country level, Headquarters or global programmes cost centres for specific sectors and/or activities. All in-kind contributions and staff-related contributions, including JPOs, consultants and secondees fall under this category.

  • Exclusion clauses

    Legal provisions that deny the benefits of international protection to people who would otherwise satisfy the criteria for refugee status. In the 1951 Convention, the exclusion clauses are found in Articles 1D, 1E and 1F. These clauses apply to the following categories:

    • individuals who are receiving protection or assistance from United Nations agencies other than UNHCR;

    • individuals who possess the rights and obligations attached to the possession of nationality of their country of residence;

    • individuals in respect of whom there are serious reasons for considering that they have committed a crime against peace, a war crime, a crime against humanity, a serious non-political crime, or acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. 

  • Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Programme (ExCom)

    The Committee charged with approving UNHCR’s assistance programmes, advising the High Commissioner on the exercise of his/her functions and overseeing the Office’s finances and administration. ExCom is composed of representatives of 101 States (2017) with a demonstrated interest in refugee issues.

  • First country of asylum concept

    An asylum-seeker may be refused access to the asylum procedure in the country where the application has been made if the applicant has already found protection as a refugee in another country (i.e. where international protection has been made available and is accessible to the applicant). 

  • Focus

    UNHCR’s results-based management software used to support the planning, management and monitoring of its operations. 

  • Gap (RBM term)

    A gap is the difference between the current situation (baseline) and the standard. It represents actual needs within specific objectives. 

  • Global Compact on Refugees

    See New York Declaration on Refugees and Migrants.

  • Goal (RBM term)

    A desired overall result to be achieved through UNHCR’s engagement with a specific population planning group.

  • Graduation approach

    A poverty-reduction model that aims to “graduate” people in rural areas out of poverty through a sequenced combination of interventions. The approach is part of UNHCR’s "Global Strategy for Livelihoods 2014-2018".

  • Grand Bargain

    An agreement reached in the lead-up to the World Humanitarian Summit between the biggest donors and aid organizations across ten work streams, which aims to shrink the humanitarian funding gap and deliver more aid to the frontline.  The initiative stemmed from the recommendations contained in the report of the UN Secretary-General’s High Level Panel’s on Humanitarian Financing, “Too important to fail: addressing the humanitarian financing gap”. 

  • Humanitarian Country Team

    Composed of organizations undertaking humanitarian action that commit to participate in coordination arrangements. Its objective is to ensure that the activities of such organisations are coordinated, and that humanitarian action in-country is principled,  timely,  effective  and  efficient,  and  contributes  to  longer-term  recovery. 

  • Implementation target (RBM term)

    The implementation target indicates the level of achievement that UNHCR plans to reach with the expected level of funds available during the period of implementation.  Implementation targets are raised in the event that additional funding becomes available (see also comprehensive target).

  • Indicators (RBM term)

    Indicators are variables that provide a simple and reliable means to measure gaps and achievements. They are expressed in a form that can be translated into statistics, which may include numbers or percentages. Indicators are used for quantitative data collection that represents a key component of Results-based Management (RBM). They include:

    - Impact indicators:  variables that facilitate measurement of changes in welfare or behaviour of persons of concern.
    - Performance indicators: variables that facilitate measurement of the quantity and quality of delivered outputs in quantifiable terms.

  • Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)

    The IASC is the primary mechanism for inter- agency coordination of humanitarian assistance. 

  • Internally displaced person (IDP)

    An individual who has been forced or obliged to flee from his home or place of habitual residence, “…in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflicts, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border” (according to the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement).

  • International protection

    All actions aimed at ensuring the equal access to and enjoyment of the rights of women, men, girls and boys of concern to UNHCR, in accordance with the relevant bodies of law (including international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law).

  • Junior Professional Officer (JPO)

    Government-sponsored young professional working for UNHCR.

  • Kampala Convention

    See AU Convention 

  • Level 3 emergency

    UN agencies have their own internal classification of levels of emergency. In the context of the IASC, a Level 3 emergency would typically be a sudden-onset complex emergency requiring the activation of a UN system-wide response, with agreed mechanisms, tools and procedures. 

  • Local integration

    Involves a durable legal status for refugees in the country of asylum  which ensures national protection for rights without discrimination. 

  • Malnutrition

    A general term for the medical condition that is caused by an improper or insufficient nutrition, which is not adequate to maintain good health.
    The adverse effects of malnutrition include both physical and developmental manifestations.

    Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM)
    The measurement of the nutritional status of a population (often used in protracted refugee situations). It is one of the basic indicators for assessing the severity of a humanitarian crisis. 

    Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM)

    • Malnutrition brought on by a protein deficiency which causes fluids to drain from the blood into the stomach, causing swelling.


    • Resulting from a general lack of calories, causing extreme emaciation with a loss of muscle and fat tissue. It is considered a medical emergency and, if untreated, will most often result in death.
  • Mandate refugees

    People who are recognized as refugees by UNHCR acting under the authority of its Statute and relevant UN General Assembly resolutions. Mandate status is especially significant in States that are not party to the 1951 Refugee Convention or its 1967 Protocol.

  • Master plan

    A comprehensive settlement plan that defines land use, emphasizing its links to the broader environment, enabling both refugees and host communities to benefit from improved services and infrastructure. This approach integrates the spatial, social, cultural, environmental and economic dynamics of a particular location to ensure all basic needs of the affected population are addressed within one common vision.

  • Mexico Plan of Action

    The Mexico Plan of Action, launched in 2004, aims to enhance international refugee protection in Latin America by further developing international refugee law, consolidating protection networks and improving the ability of States to provide effective protection to all people in need. Its focus is on providing durable solutions for urban refugees, in particular self-reliance; the special needs of refugee women; the Colombian conflict and its impact, as well as solutions at border areas; and the use of resettlement opportunities in the region. 

  • Mixed movements

    Cross-border movements of people with varying protection profiles, reasons for moving, and needs, who are moving along the same routes and using the same means of transportation or travel.

  • Multi-year multi-partner

    A multi-year  approach that will be included in UNHCR planning to support inclusion and comprehensive solutions for people of concern and will engage a broader range of partners, including development actors to plan with a longer-term vision.

  • New or Additional Activities - Mandate-related (NAM) Reserve

    Established to facilitate the acceptance of additional funding from donors for activities consistent with the mandate and capacity of UNHCR and the broad objectives of a country operation, but for which no express budgetary provision had been made. 

  • New York Declaration on Refugees and Migrants

    In September 2016, the UN General Assembly adopted a set of commitments to enhance the protection of refugees and migrants, known as the New York Declaration on Refugees and Migrants. It outlines elements for a comprehensive response to refugee displacement based on principles of international cooperation and responsibility-sharing as well as greater inclusion of refugees into local communities.
    This Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) is now being applied in a range of specific situations, through the mobilization of existing and new partnerships with development actors, humanitarian NGOs, the private sector and civil society under the lead of host governments. It contains four key elements aimed at providing more predictable and sustainable responses to large movements of refugees so as to:

    • Ease pressure on host countries.
    • Enhance refugees self-reliance.
    • Expand access to third-country solutions.
    • Support conditions in countries of origin for return in safety and dignity for refugees.

    The New York Declaration calls on UNHCR to develop and initiate the practical application of the CRRF in each situation involving large-scale movements of refugees, with a view to informing the Global Compact on Refugees, to be adopted by the General Assembly by 2018.

  • OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa

    This regional complement to the 1951 Convention provides for a broader refugee definition. Adopted in 1969, the OAU Convention stipulates that the term “refugee” also “applies to those fleeing from external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or whole of the country of origin.” 

  • Objective (RBM term)

    A statement of desired results and impacts on the well-being of people of concern that will contribute to bringing about a positive change and achieving the overall goal. The result should be a solution to the problem identified during assessment.

  • Output (RBM term)

    A specific deliverable that emerges as a result of a concrete activity aimed at achieving the related objective. It addresses the cause of the identified problem. Outputs should be achieved within a year.

  • Person of concern to UNHCR

    A person whose protection and assistance needs are of interest to UNHCR. This includes refugees, asylum-seekers, stateless people, internally displaced people and returnees.

  • Persons with specific needs

    Individuals, families or groups, requiring additional support in order to enable them to overcome the challenges they face in accessing and enjoying their rights.

  • Population Planning Group (PPG)

    A homogenous group of people of concern of the same origin and status who reside at the same location. UNHCR’s planning and budgeting is built around these groups.

  • Prima facie refugees

    Individuals who are recognized as refugees, by a State or UNHCR, on the basis of objective criteria related to the circumstances in their country of origin, justifying a presumption that they meet the criteria of the applicable refugee definition.

  • Programme support costs

    The costs of organizational units, whose primary functions are the formulation, development, delivery and evaluation of UNHCR programmes.

  • Protection

    All activities aimed at obtaining full respect for the rights of the individual, in accordance with the letter and the spirit of the relevant bodies of law (i.e. international human rights law, international humanitarian law and refugee law).

  • Protection information management

    Principled, systematized, and collaborative processes to collect, process, analyze, store, share, and use data and information to enable evidence-informed action for quality protection outcomes.

  • Refoulement

    The removal of a person to a territory where he/she would be at risk of being persecuted, or being moved to another territory where he/she would face persecution. Under international refugee law and customary international law, refoulement is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.

  • Refugee

    A refugee is any person who, “…owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his [or her] nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail him [or her]self of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his [or her] former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.”
    Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention or
    "who is outside his/her country of origin or habitual residence and is unable to return there because of serious and indiscriminate threats to life, physical integrity or freedom resulting from generalized violence or events seriously disturbing public order." OAU Convention and Cartagena Declarationblic order. (OAU Convention and Cartagena Declaration)

  • Refugee coordination model

    In line with the High Commissioner’s mandate, it outlines UNHCR’s role and responsibilities and re-articulates and standardizes UNHCR’s responsibility to lead and coordinate international actions relating to refugees with all partners engaged in the response through an inter-agency platform and under the overall leadership of the host government.

  • Refugee status determination (RSD)

    Legal and administrative procedures undertaken by States and/or UNHCR to determine whether an individual should be recognized as a refugee in accordance with national and international law.

  • Refugee-like situation

    The category of people in a refugee-like situation is descriptive in nature and includes groups of people who are outside their country of origin and who face protection risks similar to those of refugees, but for whom refugee status has, for practical or other reasons, not been ascertained. 

  • Registration

    Registration can be carried out in different manners, depending on the operational circumstances and data requirements. Level-1 Registration, often referred to as “household registration”, gathers only elementary information from persons of concern for the purpose of establishing a basic distribution system or to provide demographic estimates. In Level-2 Registration, limited personal data is collected from each individual, for basic planning, monitoring and protection activities. Level-3 Registration represents the most comprehensive recording of detailed personal data of persons of concern, which is required for individual case management and delivery of durable solutions.

  • Reintegration

    A process which enables returnees to regain their physical, social, legal and material security needed to maintain life, livelihood and dignity and which eventually leads to the disappearance of any distinction or discrimination vis-à-vis their compatriots. 

  • Resettlement

    The transfer of refugees from the country in which they have sought asylum to another State that has agreed to admit them. The refugees will usually be granted asylum or some other form of long-term resident rights and, in many cases, will have the opportunity to become naturalized citizens. For this reason, resettlement is a durable solution as well as a tool for the protection of refugees. It is also a practical example of international burden-and responsibility-sharing. 

  • Resettlement Core Group

    Core and Contact Groups are established through the agreement of resettlement States and UNHCR based on a joint assessment of the need for a coordinated, multi‑annual approach to resettlement. In particular, Core Groups aim to facilitate and improve information sharing initiatives, enhance dialogue among stakeholders, increase predictability to the planning of resettlement activities in relation to the specific refugee situation, including  the number of resettlement places offered and the number of countries involved.

  • Results-based management (RBM)

    A management philosophy and approach that emphasizes the achievement of results as the essential task of management.

  • Returnee

    A person who was of concern to UNHCR when outside his/her country of origin and who remains so, for a limited period (usually two years), after returning to the country of origin . The term also applies to internally displaced persons who return to their previous place of residence.

  • Rights Groups (RBM term)

    Thematic groupings of objectives with a similar theme used for planning and budgeting. There are nine rights groups in UNHCR’s results framework for different areas of protection, assistance, external relations and operations support. For example, the objectives for shelter, water and sanitation services are all grouped under the rights group “basic needs and essential services”.

  • Safe third country concept

    An asylum-seeker may be refused access to the asylum procedure in the country where the application has been made if responsibility for assessing the asylum application in substance is assumed by a third country, where the asylum-seeker will be protected from refoulement and will be able to seek and enjoy asylum in accordance with accepted international standards.

  • Secondary movements

    The notion refers to asylum-seekers and refugees moving independently from their first host country to another country in search of protection and solutions.

  • Seeds for Solutions

    A UNHCR initiative to help ensure investment in solutions to displacement whenever opportunities arise, even when humanitarian emergencies are placing heavy financial demands on the organization. 

  • Self-reliance

    Refers to the ability of people, households or communities to meet their essential needs and enjoy their human rights in a sustainable manner and to live with dignity.

  • Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV)

    Acts that inflict physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, that target individuals or groups of individuals on the basis of their gender.

  • Sphere Project

    The Sphere Project was launched in 1997 by a group of humanitarian NGOs and the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement. The project has developed several tools, including a handbook, in order to improve the quality of assistance provided to people affected by disasters, and to enhance the accountability of the humanitarian system in disaster response.

  • Standard (RBM term)

    A standard represents an ideal level of achievement set by the organization in order to provide the optimal level of protection for people of concern.

  • Stateless person

    Person who is not considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law, including a person whose nationality is not established. 

  • Subsidiary protection

    Beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are persons who have been found not to meet the Convention definition of a refugee but who face a real risk of serious harm. This includes the death penalty or execution, torture or inhuman or degrading treatment, or a serious and individual threat to their life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of armed conflict.

  • Temporary protection

    An arrangement or device developed by States to offer protection, of a temporary nature, to people arriving en masse from situations of conflict or generalized violence, without prior individual status determination. Temporary protection has been mostly used in industrialized States.

  • Trafficking (human)

    The organized illegal movement of people for profit. The critical additional factor that distinguishes trafficking from migrant smuggling is the use of force, coercion and/or deception throughout, or at some stage in the process. While the additional elements that distinguish trafficking from migrant smuggling may sometimes be obvious, in many cases they are difficult to prove without active investigation. 

  • Transformative Agenda

    The Transformative Agenda of the IASC was adopted in December 2011. It is a set of concrete actions aimed at transforming the way in which the humanitarian community responds to emergencies. It focuses on improving the timeliness and effectiveness of the collective response through stronger leadership, more effective coordination structures, and improved accountability for performance and to affected people.

  • Transitional Solutions Initiative (TSI)

    The TSI promotes collaboration between humanitarian and development actors and national governments in order to find solutions and self-reliance for displaced people and local community members.

  • Unaccompanied and separated children (UASC)

    Children who are not in the company of parents or another adult caregiver in a situation of displacement.

  • United Nations Volunteers (UNV)

    The volunteer arm of the UN which serves as an operational partner in development cooperation and humanitarian aid at the request of UN member States. It deploys qualified volunteers to different UN organizations. 

  • Unmet need (RBM term)

    The needs that may not be met if funding falls short of the ExCom-approved budget (potential gaps).

  • Voluntary repatriation

    Return to the country of origin based on the refugees’ free and informed decision. Voluntary repatriation may be organized (when it takes place under the auspices of the concerned governments and/or UNHCR) or spontaneous (the refugees return by their own means with no involvement of UNHCR and governments). 

  • World Humanitarian Summit

    An initiative of the UN Secretary-General, the Summit was held in Istanbul, Turkey, on 23-24 May 2016 and had three main goals:  

    • To re-inspire and reinvigorate a commitment to humanity and to the universality of humanitarian principles;
    • To initiate a set of concrete actions and commitments to countries and communities to better prepare for and respond to crises, and be resilient to shocks; and
    • To share best practices which can help save lives around the world, put affected people at the centre of humanitarian action, and alleviate suffering.  
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